なぜか薄葬を望んだ-相反する二種類の遺体観

古代の葬儀についての史料は、
どうしても天皇に関するものが中心となってしまうのだが、
それらを見ていると興味深いことに気がつく。

多くの天皇が薄葬にすることを遺言しているのだ。

たとえば、
初めて火葬にされた天皇である持統天皇。

『続日本紀』によれば、
「葬儀の儀礼については、
つとめて倹約にせよ」(宇治谷孟訳)と遺詔されたという。

次々代の元明天皇は厚葬を批判。

少し間があいて嵯峨・淳和・仁明・文徳・清和・醍醐天皇などが薄葬にすることを願っている。

淳和天皇に至っては、
魂は天に帰るのだからと言って、
火葬後の遺骨を粉砕して山に撒くよう命じている。

かっては仁徳陵のような巨大な墳墓が天皇の墓所とされていたことを考えると、
これは歴史的事件といえる。

どうしてこれほど天皇が薄葬を望んだのかは、
謎というしかない。

先にも述べたように、
貴族の葬儀は豪著に流れ、
朝廷の批判を受けるほどだったのである。

天皇の葬儀についても、
天武天皇や聖武天皇のように厚葬にされている例もある。

中央集権体制が天皇の聖性を一つの存在基盤としている以上、
体制維持のために天皇の葬送は荘厳であることが望まれたはずである。

即位と葬儀こそが権力の大きさ、
強固さを示す最大の機会だからだ。

それゆえ、
薄葬を行なうということは、
体制の弱体化を疑わせる危険性がある。

それにもかかわらず、
なぜあえて行なわれたのか。

仏教の影響は当然想像されるところであるが、
それでは仏教に帰依し出家までした聖武天皇が薄葬にされず、
火葬もされていないことの説明ができない。

嵯峨・淳和天皇の薄葬については漢の制度の影響も指摘されているが、
それだけのことで天皇の散骨が行なわれたとは考えにくい。

あくまで仮説だが、
日本には相反する二種類の遺体観があり、
それが社会的状況や政治・宗教的立場などによって、
一方が強く出るということがあるのではないだろうか。

その二種類とは、
遺体に霊性を見るものと見ないものである。

霊性を見ない立場からすると、
人間の体は霊魂の容れものにすぎず、
霊が分離した死後は廃棄物同然になる。

しかし、
霊性を見る立場からすると、
その供養なくして死後の幸福はありえない。

やっかいなのは、
この二種類の遺体観は、
遺体をめぐるさまざまな場面に混在して現われることだ。

たとえば、
火葬においても、
遺体処分としての面と保存(拾骨)の面の二種類の性質が同居している。

現代の日本人の中にも、
この二つの意識は併存していて、
それが葬儀に対してアンビバレントな感情をもたせているのだと思う。

さて、
こうした薄葬・厚葬の振幅を経ながら葬儀の仏教色は急速に濃くなっていくのだが、
通説では仏式葬儀第一号は聖武天皇だとされる。

前述のように聖武天皇は火葬にされていないので純然たる仏式であるかは疑問の残るところだが、
大々的に仏教儀礼を採り入れたという意味では画期的なものだったと言えよう。

終活って最後の生涯を『どんな感じに生きたいか』と考えられる望みを形にやること、現生の終焉に向かって生き生きとお膳立てすることで、満足する生きる活動です。
仏のお参りに手を付ける人が途絶えかねないとか一族、の引受人として、菩提寺の僧侶に依頼して、亡くなった故人の命日に、決められた年数、供養を行って貰う事、が永代供養です。
仏式の時では安置するのは北枕ですがご遺体安置の習わしは仏式以外の神式、キリスト教などの、一つ一つの宗教・宗派によってルールが異なります。
葬儀式の会場から弔辞を依頼した方に差し迫るまで、望まれたら綿密なことまで書くことが出来るのが遺言ノートの魅力です。
同居している父がある時から独りでおもむろに出掛けて毎回お葬式やお墓関連のチラシをいただいて帰ってきて内容を楽しそうに説明してくれました。

鮮魚や野菜とは異なってシーズンのあるものとは違いまるで見ないで色々と悩むより、先ずは実物をご覧になって、自分の好みの色や、石肌石目を見出しましょう。
法事参加の方々に心を静め如来の前に仏様になった往生人を迎えて、更に言葉を交わして、ご供養するものだと思っています。
頑として書き写したリビングウイルも在りかを共通して認識がなければ価値がないので、信用できる家族に伝言しておきましょう。
現実的に列席者を何名かお呼びしてどれくらいの大きさの葬儀をするのかを決定したり、亡くなった人の望みなどを考慮して、どんなイメージの葬儀を行うかをお葬式を行うかを委託します。
今頃は通夜・告別式をかからない直接火葬場で故人を納骨を行う『直葬』を執り行うご家族が増えているそうです。

最近では斎場とも言われるが事実祭祀儀礼を行うスペースおよび、祭祀儀礼を開く建物全般を指摘する呼び方であり、通夜・葬儀告別式を行う式場で斎場と称することも多いようです。

生野区 葬儀社

習慣的に地域密着という葬祭業者が多かったようですがこの数年では花祭壇が上手な葬儀業者など、独自色の、葬儀会社もいます。
「葬式お坊さん」という言葉も「葬式・法事だけしか関わらない僧侶」を嘲笑した言い方だけでなく「葬式に取り組むから穢れている」と言う旨趣をもったりする。
小生らしい末期を迎えるために父が病気や障害で大病や異変で表せなくなってもファイナルまで彼の希望を敬った治療をするでしょう。
最近では墓石の制作技量の大きな向上によりモデルの自由度が、激しく高くなり、あなただけの墓石を、自分で構想する事が、出来ると言うことになったわけなのです。

蓮の葉いまどきの冠婚葬祭TOPへ

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